Nasal allergies are also called allergic rhinitis. Rhinitis is a reaction that occurs in the nose. It happens when irritants or allergens in the air trigger the body to make histamine. Histamine causes itching and inflammation. It also causes mucus to be made in the nose and sinus linings and eyelids.
People who don't have asthma may not know how it makes you feel. Try not to get angry with them. Instead, help them learn more about asthma. If you're afraid to speak up, ask your parents what words to say. Here are some things you can say to your family, friends, teachers, and other adults.
Asthma symptoms can be monitored by closely watching for early changes or by using a peak flow meter. A peak flow meter is a tool for testing how well your child's lungs are working. It can help warn you of a flare-up, even before there are symptoms. Make sure you know when you and your child should check his or her peak flow. And make sure that you and your child know how to use the meter correctly.
Sickle cell anemia is a problem passed down through genes. It affects the red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs have a protein called hemoglobin that lets them carry oxygen through the body. With sickle cell anemia, a problem with the hemoglobin causes the cells to be C-shaped (like a sickle) instead of round. As a result, the cells can't move easily through the smallest blood vessels.
Costochondritis is inflammation of a rib or the cartilage that connects a rib to your breastbone (sternum). It causes tenderness, and sometimes chest pain may be sharp or aching, or it may feel like pressure. Pain may get worse with deep breathing, movement, or exercise. In some cases, the pain is mistaken for a heart attack. Despite this, the condition is not serious. Read on to learn more about the condition and how it can be treated.
Your newborn has a broken clavicle (collarbone). This is a common and treatable problem in newborns. Babies can easily fracture (break) their clavicle as they pass through the birth canal during birth. Large birthweight babies are more likely to have these fractures. The clavicle almost always heals with no problems.
Your child has been diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). This is a rare condition that causes bones to be very thin and delicate. So they break (fracture) easily. OI is sometimes called brittle bone disease. There are four types of OI that range from mild to severe. A child with OI will be referred to a pediatric orthopedist.
Osteomyelitis is an infection of a bone by a germ (bacteria or fungus). In children, infection in the long bones of the arms and legs are most common. A child with osteomyelitis will be referred to an orthopedist (doctor specializing in treating bone and joint problems) for evaluation and treatment.
Your child has been diagnosed with a condition called jumper's knee. This is an irritation of the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap (patella) to the shinbone (tibia). Your child will have some pain. But the pain should go away with proper care. Learn details about that here.
Your child has been diagnosed with Sever disease. Sever disease is an irritation of the area where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel (calcaneus). Constant pulling on the Achilles tendon causes the area to become inflamed. This condition is painful, but with proper care it can be treated.
Aspiration is when something enters the airway or lungs by accident. It may be food, liquid, or some other material. This can cause serious health problems, such as pneumonia. Aspiration can happen when a person has dysphagia. It can also happen if a child has gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
A team of highly trained specialists will help manage your child's care. You and your child will work closely with them. They will help you make choices about your child's health. They will help you and your child cope with cancer and its treatment. They can also answer your questions.
Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer. It forms in the area of the nerves that control blood pressure and some hormones. Children of any age can get neuroblastoma. Children age 5 and younger are affected most often. Different kinds of treatment can help shrink the cancer and make your child feel better. Your child's healthcare team will work closely with you to make decisions about your child's health.
Your child will be cared for by a surgical team. This team will include a surgeon, and one or more nurses, and other health professionals. An anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist will give your child medicine to make him or her fall asleep. Here is information about your child's surgery.
This surgery is done by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) healthcare provider or otolaryngologist. During surgery, the healthcare provider removes the fluid from your child's middle ear and places a tiny tube in the eardrum. In most cases, surgery can be done on both ears in less than 30 minutes. In some children, the adenoids are also removed.
Your child had a procedure called mastoidectomy. This is the surgical removal of the mastoid bone, which is located behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is most often done to treat infection in the mastoid bone or surrounding tissue. Here's what you need to know about home care.
Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is a problem with the frenulum, the thin strip of tissue under the tongue. It connects from the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. Some children are born with a frenulum that is too short and tight. This can cause problems with speech and eating.
Graves' disease results from an overactive thyroid gland. The gland produces too much thyroid hormone resulting in a condition called hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism may cause various symptoms and may affect all body functions. Thyroid hormone is important to body growth and metabolism. If your child has too much thyroid hormone, many of the body's processes speed up. Three options are available to treat Graves' disease: medications, radiation, or surgery. Here's what you need to know about home care following treatment.
Even though most of us treat others with kindness, there are some people who choose to be mean. They pick on kids who they think can't or won't fight back. We call this "bullying." It might happen to you. It might happen to a friend, or a kid you know. Let's talk about how to stop it.
Every child feels sad or even hopeless sometimes. Learning to cope with emotions is a normal part of growth and development. But sometimes, negative feelings begin to take over a child's life. Your child may lose interest in things they use to enjoy. This is "depression."
Your child has been diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). This condition affects the urinary tract. VUR is not painful. And it can be treated or managed. In some cases, children even outgrow the condition. Your child's healthcare provider will tell you more about choices for your child.
Your infant may look different than you had expected. You may be feeling shocked, confused, or worried that your child has sex organs that are not clearly male or female. This is called ambiguous genitalia. A health care team will help you decide how to best care for your child. Below are answers to some questions you may have.
The nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. These parts work together to allow your child to think, learn, speak, and feel emotions. They also help to control basic body functions such as movement, sensation, breathing, and heartbeat. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system. The nerves outside the brain and spinal cord make up the peripheral nervous system. Following is more information about the main parts of the nervous system.
A spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture) is a test that checks the health of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This fluid surrounds the brain and spinal cord. During the test, a small sample of CSF is removed from the spinal canal to be tested in a lab. The test is safe and does not damage the spinal cord or nerves. Within a few hours your child's body will make new fluid to replace what is removed.
Cerebral palsy (CP) causes a child to have problems with certain motor skills. This means they may have trouble with coordination, movement, or muscle control. These problems are due to damage or abnormal development of certain brain areas. Many children with CP have normal intelligence in spite of their difficulty with motor skills. With diagnosis and treatment, children can learn how to manage their condition.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a condition that involves the abnormal growth of pigment cells in the skin and of nerve cells in the body. NF1 is often not life-threatening. But problems such as seizures, developmental delay, or increased risk of tumors can happen over time. Read on to learn more.
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) causes a pink or purple birthmark called a port wine stain on the face. Abnormal blood vessels form on the surface of the brain on the same side as the port wine stain. This can lead to complications such as seizures, increased pressure in the eye (glaucoma), or developmental delay.
It's normal for children to have fears. They may be afraid of monsters, ghosts, or the dark. At times, they might be frightened by a book or movie. In most cases, these fears fade over time. But children with anxiety disorders are often afraid. Or they may have fears that go away for a while but return again and again.
Bronchiolitis is an inflammation in the lungs. It affects the small breathing tubes. It is most common in children under 2 years of age. Children tend to get better after a few days. But in some cases, it can lead to severe illness. So a child with this lung infection must be treated and watched carefully.
Your child has been diagnosed with bronchiolitis. This is a viral infection causing inflammation in the small airways in the lungs. Some children with bronchiolitis are hospitalized because they need oxygen to help them breathe or because they are dehydrated and need more fluids. Here are some instructions to help you care for your child.
Your child has been diagnosed with croup. This is often caused by a viral infection of the upper airways and voice box (larynx). You may have noticed that your child had a rough, barking cough. This is one of the most common signs of croup. Here are instructions for caring for your child at home.
Your child has been diagnosed with epilepsy, a disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures, which are brief electrical disturbances in the brain. There are different kinds of seizures, and each child's seizures are unique. Here's what you need to know about home care.
Your child has been diagnosed with hydrocephalus, a condition in which extra fluid builds up in the brain. This condition is sometimes referred to as "water on the brain." The most common treatment for hydrocephalus is insertion of a shunt. This tube drains fluid from the brain to another space in the body, where it can be safely absorbed. Here's what you need to know about home care.
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves in the neck and shoulder. These nerves carry signals that tell the arm and hand to move. If the brachial plexus is injured, palsy (paralysis) of the arm on that side may result. This condition is not painful and is usually very treatable.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart does not pump as well as it should. When this happens, fluid can build up in the lungs or body tissues (congestion). CHF can cause lung problems, organ failure, and other serious problems in the body. Your child's healthcare provider will evaluate your child's heart and discuss treatment options with you.
The heart makes sounds as the heart valves open and close to allow blood to flow through the heart. When blood does not flow smoothly through the heart or heart valves, it causes the noise. This is called turbulence. Heart murmurs can be harmless (innocent) or caused by a heart problem (pathologic).
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the lining of the heart or heart valves. It used to be known as bacterial endocarditis. IE can cause serious damage to the heart. For this reason, it must be treated right away. If your child has a heart problem, be sure to check with his or her doctor about how to prevent this infection.
You have been told your child has a problem with their vertebrae. These are the bones that stack together to make up the spine. Spondylolysis is a crack (defect) in the back part of a vertebra. Spondylolisthesis is the slipping forward of a vertebra. Here is information on the causes, symptoms, diagnosis methods, and treatments.
Heat rash (also called prickly heat) is a common problem in children, especially babies. It causes small red bumps on the skin. It appears most often on the neck, buttocks, and skin folds. But it can appear anywhere on the body. Heat rash is not serious. It can easily be treated at home.
Carnitine is a nutrient that helps the body's cells work normally. Primary carnitine deficiency is when not enough carnitine can get into cells in the body. This can cause muscle weakness. It can also cause heart or liver problems. Primary carnitine deficiency is a rare health problem a child is born with. It is caused by an abnormal gene.
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a problem with the way the eye moves. It makes it hard to focus on things nearby. When the eyes converge, it means they point inward (toward the midline) to focus on something close. With CI, the eyes have trouble doing this. One eye may turn out instead of looking inward. CI can cause blurred vision, double vision, and eyestrain.
Sixth nerve palsy is a problem with eye movement. It happens because of a problem with the sixth cranial nerve. The nerve is also known as the abducens nerve. In some cases sixth nerve palsy is present at birth (congenital). It can also result from other problems that occur later on.
It's no fun to be sick. And how do we get sick? Germs! They get on your hands when you touch things. Then, they get in your body and make you feel bad. But did you know there's a simple way to fight germs? It's as easy as washing your hands! Let's learn how to wash our hands the right way.
One of the easiest ways to stay healthy is to make sure everyone in your family washes their hands often. Hand washing keeps the harmful germs we touch from getting into our eyes, nose and mouth. And, it keeps us from spreading germs to others. So it's important to teach your kids how to wash their hands the right way.
This is an inflammation and swelling of your child's sinuses. What are sinuses? They're a system of spaces lined with mucous membranes. They drain into the nose's nasal passages. There are four types of sinuses, but they don't all develop at the same time. We're born with two, near the nose and cheeks. The other two form by the end of adolescence.
Vaginitis is a name for a group of vaginal infections. These include trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and yeast infections. The only true STD (sexually transmitted disease) is trichomoniasis. But having any type of vaginitis may increase your risk of catching other STDs.
Giardia infection (also called giardiasis) is an intestinal illness caused by the parasite Giardia. This parasite is found in food or water contaminated with stool from infected people or animals. Giardia infection is often passed in contaminated water. This most often happens when someone swallows water from a pool, lake, or stream.
E coli is a common bacteria found inside of people and animals' intestines. it is also found in the environment and in food. But certain types (strains) of E coli are harmful and can cause severe illness in people. You or your child can be infected by swallowing food or water that contain the bacteria. Contamination occurs when food or water comes in contact with stool from infected humans and animals.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria (germs) that can spread from person to person. It's carried through the air in tiny droplets. Most often, TB infects the lungs, but it also can harm other parts of the body. When not treated properly, TB can be fatal. There are two types of TB: inactive and active. Most children who have TB have the inactive form.
Lymph nodes can swell due to illness or infection. They can also swell for unknown reasons. In most cases, swollen lymph nodes (also called swollen glands) aren't a serious problem. They usually return to their original size with no treatment or when the illness or infection has passed.
Chickenpox is an illness that can easily spread from person to person (contagious). It causes an itchy skin rash that appears as bumps and blisters. The rash can spread all over the body. Though chickenpox can cause some discomfort, most children recover with no lasting effects. Here is information to help you care for your child.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Many things can cause it. One cause is infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). This virus can spread through food or water. It can also spread from person to person through infected stool. In most cases, the virus doesn't make children very sick. It may cause symptoms like the flu. But it likely won't cause long-term problems.
Your child has been diagnosed with a liver problem. This sheet describes some of the common signs and symptoms your child may experience. Some mean your child should go to the emergency room. Others are not as serious, but you should still tell your child's doctor the first time you notice them.
Your child has been diagnosed with a hepatitis infection. Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver. Many things can cause it. One of the causes is infection with a virus called the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The illness caused by HBV infection can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term). Acute hepatitis B causes flulike symptoms. It's usually mild in children. In most cases, the virus dies off after this acute infection. But if HBV stays in the child's body after the acute illness, this means the child has chronic hepatitis.
Your child has been diagnosed with a hepatitis infection. Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver. Many things can cause it. One of the causes is infection with a virus called the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In some cases, hepatitis C goes away on its own. But for most people, hepatitis C is a chronic (lifelong) problem. Hepatitis C almost never causes symptoms until later in the disease. Even so, hepatitis C can cause severe liver damage over time. And a child who has it can pass the virus to others.
The liver makes a substance called bile. It helps with digestion of food and helps carry waste out of the liver. Bile drains out of the liver through tubes called bile ducts. It drains through these ducts into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). If a child has biliary atresia, it means that some or all bile ducts aren't formed correctly, are damaged, or are missing. As a result, bile can't drain from the liver as it should.
"Lice are very tiny insects. They like to live in hair, so they are often called ""head lice."" An infection with head lice is very common in school-age children, but anyone, even adults, can get lice. Lice do not live on pets and cannot jump, fly, or walk on the ground. But they easily pass from child to child through close contact and on clothes, bed linens, brushes and combs, hats, and toys."
"Pityriasis rosea is a kind of skin rash. It usually affects the chest and back. The rash may start with a single, large oval patch called a ""herald patch."" Smaller patches may appear a few days later. Pityriasis rosea occurs more often in older children and teenagers but anyone can get it."
Ringworm is a fungal infection that affects the skin. It is contagious (able to spread from person to person). Ringworm appears as a round or oval patch. It is smooth in the center with a scaly, red border. The most commonly affected areas are the scalp, feet, nails, and groin. It is called ringworm because of the way it looks. It is NOT caused by a worm. Ringworm is not serious and can usually be treated at home.
A hernia occurs when a section of bowel pushes out through a weakness in the muscle. The hernia looks like a bulge under the skin. In baby boys, a bulge in the scrotum is the most common type of hernia and is the result of a persistent canal between the scrotum and abdomen that normally closes when a fetus is developing. A hernia can move back into the abdomen through the passage. So you may not see the bulge all the time. You may see it most when your baby is straining (such as during crying, feeding, or a bowel movement).
Blood in your child's vomit or stool can be a sign of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. GI bleeding can be scary for you and your child. Many times, the cause of the bleeding is not serious. Still, your child should ALWAYS be seen by a healthcare provider if GI bleeding happens.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a relatively common condition in children. It affects your child's digestive tract, where food is broken down to give your child energy and help him or her grow. No one knows exactly what causes IBS, although it may be a result of the nerves in the intestine being overly sensitive, causing spasm and changes in the way the intestine contracts. IBS may come and go, but there are things you can do to help your child feel better.
Your child is having vomiting or retching (gagging) that goes on for hours, or even days. During this time, your child may also have headaches or stomach pain. Then it goes away for weeks or months at a time. Your child may have a rare problem called cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). CVS is sometimes known as abdominal migraine.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes swelling and sores in your child's digestive tract. The whole tract may be affected, from the mouth to the anus (where stool leaves the body). Swelling and sores make it harder for the body to get nutrients from food. This can make your child feel very ill. It can also lead to problems with growth. No one knows what causes Crohn's disease. There is no cure. But your child's symptoms can be managed.
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It affects your child's large intestine (colon) and rectum (where stool is stored before leaving the body). Ulcerative colitis causes swelling, bleeding, and sometimes sores in this part of the digestive tract. No one knows what causes ulcerative colitis, but your child's symptoms can be managed.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common bacteria. It is a cause of ulcers (sores). It weakens the mucous layer that coats the inside of the stomach and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). This allows stomach acid to flow through the weakened layer and burn the tissue of the stomach wall below.
An ulcer is a breakdown of tissue on the inside of the stomach or small intestine. This causes a sore to form. An ulcer can form in the stomach (a gastric ulcer). Or one can form in the first part of the small intestine (a duodenal ulcer). In children, ulcers are often caused by an infection with bacteria (such as Helicobacter pylori), certain medicines (such as NSAIDs), or an increase in stomach acid.
While a baby is still in the womb, its intestines (bowels) form. As they form, they move into their normal position in the abdomen (belly). Intestinal malrotation happens when the intestines don't form in the right position. The intestines may bend the wrong way. Or, parts of the intestine may end up in the wrong part of the abdomen. Bands of tissue called Ladd bands can grow between the intestines and body wall. These secure the intestines in the wrong place. Ladd bands can also block part of the intestine, causing digestive problems.
The bowel (intestine) is a very long tube. It is coiled up tightly inside the abdomen. Intussusception occurs when a portion of the bowel slides inside another portion. This happens in the same way that parts of a telescope slide inside each other when you close it. The bowel can slide back out by itself. Or, it can get stuck. Blood supply to part of the bowel could then become blocked. This can cause severe damage if not treated.
Vomiting is most often caused by viral infection or food poisoning. It usually lasts only a day or two. The biggest concern when your child is vomiting is dehydration (too little fluid in the body). This sheet tells you what you can do to help your child feel better and stay hydrated.